Global warming is changing the color of the oceans
06 February, 2019, 12:39 | Author: Tara Reeves
Rather than create a computer model from scratch, the team modified an existing tool that had been used to predict phytoplankton population changes as a result of rising temperatures and ocean acidification.
Phytoplankton absorb and reflect different wavelengths of sunlight, which appear as different colors.
Now, MIT is saying the changes in these organisms will be so extreme that they would cause a change in surface color of the oceans by the end of the 21st century.
But as warm, subtropical waters get warmer, populations of phytoplankton are projected to decrease, changing the waters to moreblue colors.
By the year 2100, they say more than 50 percent of our oceans will have shifted in color, and those regions in the subtropics and near the equator and poles will have brighter blues and deeper greens most visible through satellite images of the Earth.
"The basic pattern will still be there", said Research Scientist Stephanie Dutkiewicz in a press release from MIT. "Phytoplankton are at the base, and if the base changes, it endangers everything else along the food web, going far enough to the polar bears or tuna or just about anything that you want to eat or love to see in pictures". Dutkiewicz is a principal research scientist at MIT's Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences and the Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change. She chose to try a new method: looking a subtle shifts in water color. So water with more phytoplankton has a greenish hue. As such, the ocean appears blue. As a result, the simulation could show changes to the light being absorbed and reflected to the ocean based on the presence of phytoplankton.
Dr Anna Hickman, from the University of Southampton, added: 'Crudely speaking, where the water is now quite blue because the phytoplankton [have a] relatively low biomass, you are going to see the water getting more blue, and where the ocean is relatively more green because the biomass is higher, you are going to see [it] getting [greener]'.
Satellites have been taking continuous measurements of the ocean's color since the late 1990s, the researchers noted. "Everything in the ocean requires phytoplankton to exist".
"An El Niño or La Niña event will throw up a very large change in chlorophyll because it's changing the amount of nutrients that are coming into the system", Dutkiewicz says.
Instead of looking to derived estimates of chlorophyll, the team wondered whether they could see a clear signal of climate change's effect on phytoplankton by looking at satellite measurements of reflected light alone. Climate change will fuel the blooming of some phytoplankton in some areas, while reducing it in other spots, leading to subtle changes in the ocean's appearance.
"Sunlight will come into the ocean, and anything that's in the ocean will absorb it, like chlorophyll", Dutkiewicz says. These organisms are responsible for much of the colour we see.
When they increased the global temperatures by up to 3 degrees Celsius by 2100, they found that wavelengths of light in the blue or green wave band responded the fastest. But it's been hard to detect and measure these changes, says Dutkiewicz, partly because there's so much variability in the ocean from year to year. "But the change in the colour of the ocean will be one of early warning signals that we really have changed our planet".
As well as changes in the blue of the oceans, we are also likely to see changes in the green.
According to Dr Dutkiewicz, "By the end of 21 century, a difference in the color by 50% would be noticed". "It could be potentially quite serious".
The duchess donned a bright-green Eponine London dress, black tights and black lace-up heeled ankle boots by L.K. As part of the initiative, the school kids were asked to bring an object to school that "makes them happy".
But physicians and researchers have known for decades now that the MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) vaccine is safe and effective. A person with measles will themselves be most infectious to others in the period four days before and after the rash appears.
Northern Ireland does not have to rely on the Irish Government or the European Union to prevent a return to borders of the past. Downing Street said Mrs May had warned the weekly meeting of the Cabinet that the talks with Brussels would not be easy.
At that time, "multiple sources noted that messages they received from the CEO had mysteriously disappeared", The Verge reports. Participants in a group conversation receive a message saying "This message was deleted" to alert them of the change.
Besides Pant, the others who have joined the team are spin all-rounder Krunal Pandya and Punjab pacer Siddharth Kaul. After the remarkable victory in ODI series, India will look to bag the maiden T20 series as well.
Ousmane Dembele , who also trained after recovering from two weeks out with an ankle sprain, has not been named in the squad. Messi has scored in nine straight games in all competitions, and is the league leading scorer with 21 in 22 matches.
That's the lowest overnight rating for a Super Bowl ever recorded in New Orleans , per Jeff Duncan of the Times-Picayune . It's worth noting that, while down significantly, the Super Bowl remains one of the most-watched events of the year.
Mr Mearns - who is known as the "Shipwreck Hunter" - and his team found the plane within two hours of commencing their search. Horacio's comments come after search teams revealed a body had been spotted 200ft down on the seabed of the English channel.
The defeat means Kenya pick only one point at Sydney 7s, their lowest of this lowest season to move to 12 points. While agonizing, another runner-up berth ensures the US continues its best ever start to a season.
Jennifer Lawrence and Cooke Maroney are engaged
Oscar-winning actress Jennifer Lawrence is engaged to boyfriend Cooke Maroney , her representative has told U.S. media. Rumours of their engagement kicked off after Lawrence, 28, was recently spotted wearing a massive ring.
Grizzlies and Jazz Exploring Mike Conley-Ricky Rubio Swap
In addition, the Jazz would likely have to absorb the remaining two years and $66 million that Conley has on his current contract. Gasol can become a free agent this summer by opting out of the final year on his $25.5 million contract for 2019-2020.
Fowler overcomes strange triple bogey to capture Phoenix Open
In 2018, Fowler entered the final round of the Phoenix Open as the solo leader but dropped to finish in a tie for 11th place. His third shot went into the water and he was handed a one-stroke penalty after his dropped ball rolled back into the water.