Arnold, who is 62 years old, joins four other women who have won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
The researchers have "taken control of evolution and used it for purposes that bring the greatest benefit to humankind", the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciencessaid Wednesday in a statement.
Life on Earth exists because over the past 3.7 billion years organisms have adapted to their environment, with evolution solving complex chemical problems: fish can for example swim in polar oceans because they have antifreeze proteins in their blood.
Smith and Winter were awarded for their work with bacteriophages, the viruses that feast on bacteria. This technique uses bacteria-infecting viruses to drive the evolution of new proteins and antibodies.
"The way most people were going about protein engineering was doomed to failure", she said.
This year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry went to three scientists for using the power of evolution to design molecules with a range of practical uses. And including antibodies - that's what Gregory Winter did.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first of these drugs in 2002. It is a popular way to treat rheumatoid arthritis, some skin diseases and inflammatory bowel diseases.
Sold as Humira in the USA and under other brand names elsewhere, it brought AbbVie $18.4 billion in revenue past year, in part because of its price: about $5,000 a month without insurance coverage in the U.S. "Since then, phage display has produced anti-bodies that can neutralise toxins, counteract autoimmune diseases and cure metastatic cancer". In Arnold's experiments, these advantageous traits equate to mutated enzymes that exhibit high levels of efficiency and can replace strong solvents, heavy metals and corrosive acids in the production of pharmaceuticals, plastics and other chemicals.
Arnold first tested her method of what has been called "directed evolution" in 1993. Arnold devised methods for reshuffling the genes that make enzymes, and then seeing which new recipes produced promising effects. How do you get a whole new chemical activity that you don't know already existed? It contained a combination of 10 mutations that nobody could have predicted would work so well, the Swedish academy said.
Melania Trump Greeted With ‘Not a Sh*thole’ Sign on Africa Trip
The youngest First Lady ever was Frances Folsom Cleveland, who was just 21 when she married President Grover Cleveland in 1886. Previous year he appeared to refer to a non-existent country called "Nambia" in a speech to ambassadors from the continent.
The academy described the process as being similar to biological evolution. Her tailored enzymes have become important for making medications and other valuable substances like renewable fuels. She earned her PhD in 1985 from the University of California, Berkeley.
St. Louis Public Radio's Eli Chen spoke to George Smith, emeritus professor of biology at University of Missouri, about what it means for him to win the Nobel Prize in chemistry. Others now commonly use it to create new enzymes. Marie Curie remains the only woman to have won two Nobel prizes and the only person to be a laureate in two different sciences.
A British scientist whose work led to a new generation of advanced antibody drugs has told of his "shock" at hearing he had won a Nobel Prize.
The head of the American Institute of Physics said the work of Mr Mourou and Ms Strickland enabled new studies of matter by allowing scientists to produce more powerful bursts of laser light.
He said he learned of the prize in a pre-dawn phone call from Stockholm. It directly led to the power of monoclonal antibodies being harnessed for treatment of disease. "Her work is incredible".
Winter applied the phage display technique to create pharmaceutical antibodies.
- The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science will be announced Monday in Sweden.
On Tuesday (October 2), the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences chose to award the Nobel Prize in Physics 2018 to Arthur Ashkin, Gerard Mourou and Donna Strickland. He worked for the university for 40 years and retired in 2015.
Vladmir Putin is India on a two-day India visit. "But we have to complete this with the strengthening of economic ties". India also has intensified its defense ties with the U.S. in recent years with joint military drills and defense sales.
With Republicans controlling the chamber 51-49, one Republican voted to stop the nomination, one Democrat to send it further. Dozens of people crowded into Collins's office pleading with her staff to tell the senator to oppose Kavanaugh, to no avail.
NASA's Hubble and Kepler space telescopes have uncovered what could be the first moon outside our solar system ever found. Another possibility is that the moon , whatever its size, has moved away from its planet over the eons.
In New Delhi , petrol prices rose by 15 paise to Rs 84 a litre while diesel prices increased by 20 paise to Rs 75.45 per litre. However, South Indian states such as Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh say they can't cut their fuel taxes anytime soon.
And Trump's first national security strategy released past year labeled China a "revisionist power" alongside Russian Federation . Google declined to comment, except to reiterate that its China search engine project is "exploratory" and not close to launching.
Meng Hongwei was reported missing Friday by his wife, the Associated Press reports , citing an anonymous French judicial official. Meng is also a vice minister of public security in China, but he lives in Lyon with his wife and children.
The airport was not shut down during the emergency response, and it's understood there were no delays to flights. One of the flight's pilots made a mayday call because the plane was low on fuel after a 15-hour flight.
While in Asia, Pompeo will also visit Japan, South Korea and China, State Department spokesperson Heather Nauert said. Nauert said the meetings in Japan, South Korea and China were meant to brief counterparts on the talks in Pyongyang.
Only Sachin Tendulkar and Parthiv Patel were younger than Shaw when they got their maiden Test half-centuries, but not on debut. He is also the third batsman after Shikhar Dhawan (85 balls) and Dwayne Smith (93) to hit his debut ton in under 100 balls.
Appointed by President Gerald Ford , Stevens retired from the Court in 2010 after serving for almost 35 years. Although a lifelong Republican , Stevens often sided with the liberal position in court rulings.
Now a registered Republican, he says he identifies more strongly as a political independent and does not support President Trump . But based on his "direct experience with Julie", Ketterer wrote, he did "not believe her allegations against Mr.
Heitkamp has been viewed as a potential swing vote and one of the senators who could decide the fate of the nomination. And when Wray was serving in the deputy attorney general's office under President George W.
Man's doorstop turns out to be meteorite worth $100Gs
He then kept the meteorite with him for the next years, and even allowed his children to bring it to school for show and tell . A man has discovered a rock he's been using as a doorstop for 30 years is a meteorite worth more than $100,000.